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The Charger Bulletin

Did You Know? – Stonehenge

by Joann Wolwowicz | May 2, 2012

Stonehenge is perhaps one of the most peculiar sites in existence today. Image a large circle of rocks that no one knows exactly what it’s doing there, who put it there, what it was used for, or how it even got to that location. Put all of that together and you have Stonehenge, the prehistoric monument of roughly 100 massive upright stones laid out in a circular arrangement. Nearly one million people visit this location every year since it was deemed a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986. Stonehenge is located in southern England and sits on the Salisbury Plain.

So what exactly is known about this mysterious circle of rock? Archaeologists agree that Stonehenge was built in several stages, starting over 5,000 years ago. It began with the digging of a large circular ditch, or henge, on Salisbury Plain. Primitive tools, including deer antlers, were used to dig in the area. However, the actual arrival of the stones did not begin until several hundred years later. An estimated 80 non-indigenous bluestones were hoisted and placed into the circular formation, 43 of which remain today. Then in around 2,000 B.C., the three sandstone slabs were assembled into the iconic three-pieced structures in the center of Stonehenge. These structures are referred to as Trilithons. According to archaeologists, work continued until 1600 B.C., including different repositioning of the stones.

Where did all of this stone come from? Where they in the area, or did the builders bring them in from other locations? Stonehenge’s largest structure weights more than 40 tons and rises 24 feet. This piece was most likely from quarries 25 miles north of the area and transported using sledges and ropes. Many of the other pieces may have already been scattered in the area when the architects first started constructing. Other, smaller stones have been traced back to over 200 miles away to the Preseli Hills in Wales. This raises the question of why builders, without the aid of tools would bother to move stones that weigh more than four tons over 200 miles.

Since we’ve answered the question, or at least attempted to answer, how the stones were brought there, the next question is who built Stonehenge? Mythical accounts of English history state that Merlin moved the stones with his sorcery to the area. However, more realistic is to say that anyone from the Saxon, Danes, Romans, Greeks, or Egyptians could have been responsible. However, the consensus among historians today is that several distinct tribes of people were responsible and contributed, especially since the whole thing was built over the course of many years.

And finally, what was the function or significance of this construction? There is still no definitive answer to this question. There is no doubt that this location was of great importance. There is evidence that it was once used as a burial site, but other scholars believe that it was also used for other functions as well. It could have been a ceremonial site, religious destination, or even a final resting place for royalty. In 1960, it was even suggested that the structures could have even operated as a calendar. Whatever its purpose was, Stonehenge is one of the most famous and recognizable sites in the world. Work has already been done to help restore the area to prevent collapse so people can continue to visit the area.

Did You Know?: Earth Day

by Joann Wolwowicz | April 25, 2012

Living in a time where there is great concern for the environment, there is always discussion about global warming, recycling, and pollution. People are now more environmentally conscious about what they do to this planet, especially about what they do with things that can be reused. There are now cars that produce less pollution and run on electricity as opposed to gasoline, and almost everything produced now says that it’s composed of material that has already been recycled and reused. So much is being done to make sure that we protect this planet and its nonrenewable resources. So when did it all start? Though Americans were becoming more aware of the environment in the 1960’s, Earth Day, the day established to educate people about environmental issues was held for the first time in 1970.

Up until the 1960’s, the national political agenda was not relatively concerned to protecting the planet’s national resources. There were also a minimal number of activists devoted to issues such as industrial pollution. Airs, lakes, and rivers were constantly being polluted by factory waste. Few Americans knew little or were accustomed to practicing recycling. Things began to change in 1962 when Senator Gaylord Nelson, a Democrat from Wisconsin, was elected to the U.S. Senate. Nelson was determined to convince the federal government that the planet was at risk of irreparable damage. Nelson became the leader of the environmentalist movement in 1969 when the idea of Earth Day was first discussed.

The Earth Day concept was introduced by Nelson at conference in Seattle in the fall of 1969 and invited the entire nation to get involved. Newspapers carried the story from coast to coast, and the concept took off quickly. Turns out there were more people in the United States that cared about what was happening to the environment. Nelson stated in an interview that he did not have the time, money, or additional resources to organize the event of such a magnitude. He stated that “the remarkable thing about Earth Day. It organized itself.” Over 20 million demonstrators and the thousands of schools and local communities participated in the first Earth Day.

On April 22, the first Earth Day, there were rallies held in a variety of important cities including Chicago, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. Additionally, there were speeches in New York City and Washington D.C. by celebrities and the majors. Congress even went into recess to be able to participate and speak at Earth Day events. Overall, the day was effective in gaining people’s attention to these important matters, and opinion polls showed that public awareness was raised and attitudes towards the environment were changed. It is safe to say that Earth Day kicked off the environmental decade, starting with the legislation that was passed to start taking care of this earth. This included the Clean Air Act and the Water Quality Improvement Act.

Earth Day is now a globally recognized day, going global in 1990, when 200 million people in 140 different countries participated, according to the Earth Day Network. Today, the Earth Day Network collaborates with more than 17,000 partners and organizations in 174 countries. According to EDN, more than one billion people are involved in Earth Day activities, making it “the largest secular civic event in the world.”

Did You Know? – Alcatraz Prison

by Joann Wolwowicz | April 18, 2012

Alcatraz Island can be found in California’s San Francisco Bay, and it is the location of the federal prison that is known to have once housed some of America’s most wanted from the days it was in operation from 1934 to 1963. Nicknamed “the Rock,” today the island is a popular tourist destination, after having been the site of a U.S. military prison from the 1850’s to 1933. The island first got its name in 1775 from Spanish explorer Juan Manuel de Ayala who named the island due to the large amount of pelicans and sea birds residing on the island. The original name was La Isla de los Alcatraces, or Island of the Pelicans. However, it was not until 1850 that President Millard Fillmore signed the order that reserved the area for United States military use.

The army began holding military prisoners on the island in the 1850’s due to the island’s isolated location from the mainland. It seemed the ideal location for a prison, due to the idea that no inmate would be able to brave the waters trying to escape and live. Some of the prisoners during this time included citizens accused of treason during the Civil War and American Indians who the government deemed uncooperative. The U.S. Justice Department gained control of the prison from the army in 1933, turning it into a federal prison for dangerous inmates, inmates too dangerous or difficult for normal penitentiaries. Security was improved to create a maximum security facility, which opened on July 1, 1934.

James A. Johnston was the first warden at the new federal prison, and hired one guard for every three prisoners, each with their own cell. At the prison, prisoners lived in sparse conditions with limited privileges. This was the organization to teach the inmates how to “follow the rules,” before having them return to other federal prisons around the country for the remainder of their sentence. There were always between 260 to 275 prisoners at one time housed in the prison. Some of the more famous inhabitants included Al Capone, who spent four-and-a-half years there, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, who spent 17 years there, and gangster Alvin “Creepy Karpis” Karpowicz, who spent over 25 years in Alcatraz. Karpowicz is listed as the one prisoner who spent the most time there.

One of the more famous facts about Alcatraz is about the escape attempts that were made. There were a total of 14 known attempts to escape, involving 36 inmates. It was reported that of those 36 escapees, 23 were captured, six were shot and killed, two drowned, and five went missing and were later presumed drowned. No inmate ever managed to escape from the prison. However, the most famous escape attempt ended up causing a battle when six prisoners overpowered the officers, gaining access to weapons, but not keys to leave the prison. Alcatraz was shut down in 1963 due to the large operating cost of the facility and the fact that many of the buildings were beginning to crumble due to exposure to the sea air.  The island became part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in 1972 and was opened to the public one year later.

Did You Know? – Great Wall of China

by Joann Wolwowicz | April 11, 2012

Known as the only manmade structure that is visible from the moon, the Great Wall of China is one of the world’s most impressive architectural feats. The wall itself is a symbol of the long history of China. Today it remains a symbol of the country’s enduring strength, but it once served the purpose of trying to prevent invaders from entering China, a purpose it never successfully completed. It eventually became what many historians claimed to be a barrier between Chinese civilization and the outside modern world. So who began building the Great Wall, and who were they trying to keep out of China? Who was actually involved in building the actual wall? This wall has such an extensive history; we better get started.

China was originally divided into individual kingdoms during the Warring States Period. It was Quin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the unified China, who called for the demolition of a number of existing walls that separated some of these kingdoms. These walls along the northern border would be joined together into a single wall that would protect China from attacks in the north. However, this project was one of the most ambition projects ever undertaken by any civilization, with plans for the wall to be about one-third of a mile. General Meng Tian directed the project, directing soldiers and convicts to build the wall. It is said that as many as 400,000 people died during the wall’s construction; many of these workers were buried within the wall itself.

The wall was constructed with earth and stone as building materials, and it was constructed so that certain sections overlapped for maximum security. The Wall rose about 15 to 30 feet in height, with guard towers distributed at intervals. However, when the emperor died, the Great Wall went into great disrepair. During the Northern Wei dynasty, the Wall was repaired and extended to defend against attacks from other tribes. Additionally, more than 900 miles of the wall was repaired by the Bei Qi kingdom, and the Wall was extended by the Sui dynasty a number of times. Sadly, the Great Wall lost its importance with the fall of the Sui and the rise of the Tang dynasty from 618 to 907.

During the Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, the Great Wall of China as we know it today was actually constructed. It was during this time period that the Chinese culture flourished and there was a large amount of construction which included the Great Wall, bridges, temples, and pagodas. The construction of the Great Wall as it is known today began around 1474. After an initial phase of territorial expansion, Ming rulers took a largely defensive stance, and their restoration and extension of the Great Wall was key to this strategy. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Great Wall was broken through by the Manchus from central and southern Manchuria. To this day, roadways have been cut through the wall in various points, and many sections have deteriorated after centuries of neglect. The best-known section is called Badaling and is located 43 miles northwest of Beijing. This was rebuilt in the late 1950’s.

Did You Know? – Mount Rushmore

by Joann Wolwowicz | April 4, 2012

What do U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt all have in common? There are probably many things that link these four men, including the many contributions they made to this country as presidents. However, the one particular idea I was referring to is the fact that these four men can be found in South Dakota’s Black Hills National Forest. To be more specific, they can be found on the southeastern face of Mount Rushmore, and they are pretty hard to miss considering they are four gigantic carved sculptures. Why were the first, third, twenty-sixth, and sixteenth presidents carved into this mountain, and why was it named Mount Rushmore? The answers to these questions might surprise you.

Charles E. Rushmore, the man after which the mountain was named after, traveled to the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1884 to inspect mining claims in the region. The story goes that he asked a man what the name of the mountain was, and learned that it never had a name. From then on, it was known as Rushmore Peak, followed by Rushmore Mountain and Mount Rushmore. However, Rushmore had nothing to do with the carving of the presidents into the mountain. That idea came around when South Dakota’s state historian Doane Robinson wanted to attract tourism to the Black Hills in the 1920’s.

The original idea for the area was to have someone sculpt an area with several giant natural granite pillars known as “the Needles” into the shapes of historic heroes of the west. This idea was then changed to have Gutzon Borgium, an American sculptor of Danish descent, work on a carving of an image of Confederate General Robert E. Lee into the Georgia’s Stone Mountain. Unfortunately, Borgium, due to his unpopularity with those who had commissioned him, abandoned the project and the sculpture of Lee. It was then suggested that to gain more national support, the figures carved should be of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln to ensure more nation interest and visitors in the future. Borgium then added Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt to the plans due to their contributions to the birth of democracy and the growth of this country.

In August of 1925, Mount Rushmore was selected to be the site of the project, and funding began to be raised. President Calvin Coolidge traveled to the site, and later signed legislation to give $250,000 in federal funds for the Rushmore project and create the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission to oversee its completion. Official work on the project began in 1927 and was finished in 1941. An average of 400 workers erected the sculpture under dangerous conditions, removing a total of 450,000 tons of rock to create the carved heads. Each head was sculpted to a height of 60 feet. However, the original design showed that the four presidents were meant to be represented from the waist up, but insufficient funding forced the project to an end with the completion of their faces. Known as the “Shrine of Democracy,” Mount Rushmore welcomes roughly two million visitors every year, and is one of America’s most popular tourist attractions.

Did You Know? – The Gold Rush

by Joann Wolwowicz | March 28, 2012

Imagine digging in the base of a river when you suddenly come across something shiny in the water. Could it be what you think it is? What if it was gold? Would you be rich; could there be more gold in that river or in the area? All of these questions sprang up when gold nuggets were discovered in the Sacramento Valley in 1848. Naturally, this discovery sparked the Gold Rush, a time period in the history of the United States that contributed significantly to the increase in California’s population leading to its statehood. The Gold Rush peaked in 1852, but there was a total of two billion dollars’ worth of gold extracted from the area during the entire period.

The first discovery of gold occurred just as was mentioned in the beginning of this feature. James Wilson Marshall was a carpenter originally from New Jersey who was building a water-powered sawmill for John Sutter, a German-born Swiss citizen and founder of the colony Nueva Helvetia, the future city of Sacramento. He was at the base of the American River by the Sierra Nevada Mountains when he spotted flakes of gold. Naturally, just days after the discovery, the news spread that there was a large quantity of gold to be found. It was during this time that the Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and California officially belonged to the United States.

By the middle of June, more than three quarters of the population in the area left town and headed for the gold mines. As news continued to spread, there were migrants from other areas including Oregon, Mexico, Peru, Chile, and even China. The East Coast, though originally skeptical, started to arrive after December of 1848 after President Polk reported on the success of the abundance of gold. By 1849, many men had borrowed money, mortgaged their homes, or spent their life savings just to head out to California.  There were thousands of miners who were called the ‘49ers. By this time, the original population of California was overrun by the non-native population estimated at 100,000. This was at the end of 1849. The non-native population had been 20,000 at the end of 1848 and only a small 800 back at the beginning of 1848.

With the massive amounts of people coming into the area, gold mining towns sprung up to help accommodate the influx. These towns had everything from shops to saloons and brothels all looking to make some money from those out searching for gold. These towns were also known for their gambling, prostitution, and violence despite a growing economy. This influx of people into California sped up the admission of the state into the Union at the thirty-first state in 1849. California entered as a free state. However, as most of us know, all good things come to an end. And just as easily as it had come, by 1850, all of the gold in California disappeared. Gold became more difficult to reach while the mining continued throughout the 1850’s, reaching its peak in 1852 and declining thereafter.

Did You Know? – Pompeii

by Joann Wolwowicz | March 21, 2012

Imagine an unknown city. One day it’s there, and the next it’s buried under volcanic ash for 2,000 years until someone discoveres it again. Such was the story of the Roman city of Pompeii, the city which in 79 A.D. was buried by the most famous eruption of Mount Vesuvius, a volcano near the Bay of Naples in Italy. Two thousand people died that day, and the city was abandoned until a group of explorers rediscovered it in 1748. What exactly was discovered? To the surprise of those explorers, Pompeii was mostly intact with its buildings, artifacts, and skeletons left behind in the city that was buried alive. It’s proved to be an insight into what everyday life was like back then.

Pompeii was close in lifestyle to what places like a resort would be like today, only back then. An attractive area to live for wealthy vacationers, many people came to enjoy the sun and the scenery. It became a popular resort for many of Rome’s distinguished citizens, with elegant houses and even paved streets. There was a 20,000 arena, marketplaces, bathhouses, cafes, and brothels. Scholars estimate that on the night before the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, there were roughly 20,000 people living in Pompeii or in the surrounding region. This large amount of people consisted of tourists, those who lived in Pompeii on a constant basis, and slaves.

Before we continue to talk about what happened on that day, let’s talk a little about Mount Vesuvius, the volcano who has erupted more than 50 times and is responsible for plunging a whole city into darkness. Where there any warning signs that could have told people that they should have left the area. Scholars say that many people overlooked the mountain’s “bad temper” just to be able to stay in such a pleasant spot. There was a massive earthquake in 63 A.D., sixteen years before the eruption. Scientists claim that this was a natural warning to the people of the disaster. However, this was a warning that went unheeded because thousands of people still traveled to the area each year.

On the day of the eruption, the blast sent ashes, pumice, other rocks, and hot volcanic gases into the sky. This could be seen by people hundreds of miles away. Once this debris cooled, it drifted to the earth as ash and then as chunks of pumice and other rocks. Most of the people had time to flee, but those who chose to stay behind experienced conditions that grew worse. The falling ash clogged the air, making it difficult to breath. Buildings collapsed. Finally, a “100-miles-per-hour surge of superheated poison gas and pulverized rock” came down the mountain and swallowed everything and everyone. Pompeii was then abandoned for centuries.

The group of explorers who found Pompeii was originally looking for ancient artifacts. They found what the ashes preserved, and what was preserved was remarkable. Today, Mount Vesuvius has not erupted since 1944, but it is still one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. Experts say that we are due for anyone eruption any day, which would be another catastrophe since almost three million people live within 20 miles of the volcano to this day.

Did You Know? – Read Across America

by Joann Wolwowicz | February 29, 2012

No doubt many of us have forgotten the things about our past that we used to do, especially in the earlier days of our education. No doubt, without reading the subject of this article, most of you would not remember what March 2 celebrates every year, even though it was probably a big day in school when you were in elementary or middle school. March 2 is the birthday of everyone’s favorite childhood author Dr. Seuss, and it is also known as Read Across America day, an annual day dedicated to motivate children to celebrate reading. Are the memories coming back to you yet?

In cities and towns across the nation, teachers, librarians, politicians, parents, and just anyone else who wants to be involved help plan activities to bring the excitement of reading to children everywhere. The whole day began in May of 1997 when a small reading task force at the National Education Association (NEA) decided to create a day to excite kids about reading just as a pep rally excites kids about football. The purpose of the day was to teach everyone how important reading was in achievement and education. So why was Dr. Seuss’s birthday chosen as the day to celebrate reading? There was no one better in the world of children’s authors to choose from to showcase the importance of reading.

Theodor Seuss Geisel was the American writer, poet, and cartoonist who was most widely known for his 46 children’s books that he wrote under the pen name Dr. Seuss. His characters in his books were often imaginative and colorful. His most famous and most beloved books among children include those such as Green Eggs and Ham, The Cat in the Hat, One Fish To Fish Red Fish Blue Fish, Horton Hears a Who!, and How the Grinch Stole Christmas. From his many works, there have been 11 television specials, four movies, a Broadway musical, and four television series. His books continue to bring joy to children of all ages, especially those who like to look back and remember their childhood.

But why did he start writing under a pen name? Geisel attended Dartmouth College and joined the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern. He became editor-in-chief, but was forced to resign when he was caught drinking in his room with friends. To continue working on the magazine, he began signing his work with the pen name “Seuss,” signing his first work after graduation as “Dr. Seuss.” He intended to earn a Doctor of Philosophy in English literature, but instead returned to the United States in 1927 after meeting and marrying his wife. It wasn’t until after World War II that Seuss turned his attention to children’s books, after having drawn political cartoons for various newspapers and posters for various departments.

In May of 1954, there was a report published that stated that children were not reading because their books were boring. Seuss was given a list of 348 words that were deemed important for first-graders to recognize and was asked to cut the list down to 250. He was challenged to write a book using only those words and to write a book that children would not be able to put down. Nine months later, with 236 of the words provided, The Cat in the Hat was published, and proved to be and still is very popular.

Did You Know? – Prohibition

by Joann Wolwowicz | February 22, 2012

Since last week’s “Did You Know” focused on Al Capone and the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, I thought that it would be interesting to learn about the whole time period of Prohibition including why it was enacted and what exactly it caused to happen. Everything began in the 1820’s and 30’s when the United States was beginning to hear calls for temperance. Massachusetts was the first state which passed a temperance law that banned the sale of alcohol. However, the restriction was the banning of sale of alcohol in less than 15 gallon quantities. This set a precedent and led to Maine passing the first state prohibition law in 1846.

Leaders in the temperance movement were mostly women, who saw alcohol as the reason for ruined families and marriages. 1906 brought attacks on the sale of liquor. However, nothing legal occurred until 1917 when the United States entered World War I and President Woodrow Wilson instituted a temporary wartime prohibition order to save grain for producing food. This led to the introduction of the 18th amendment, which officially banned the manufacturing, transportation, and sale of all alcohol. It took only 11 months for the required three-quarters of the states to vote in support of the amendment. The amendment was ratified on January 29, 1919 and went into effect one year later. However, by this time, 33 states had already made their own prohibition legislation.

However, though there were good intentions behind the proposal of the amendment, no one could have imagined how hard it was going to be to enforce Prohibition, especially over the course of the 1920’s. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was assigned to oversee enforcement, but the Justice Department later took over. Prohibition was easier enforced in rural areas where support for the amendment was evident. It was in the urban areas where those who wanted to keep drinking found more and more creative ways to continue. Bootlegging went on throughout the decade and the operations of speakeasies could be seen in the least suspected places (garages, funeral parlors, barber shops, etc.). Alcohol was smuggled across state lines, and there was even production of liquor (moonshine or bathtub gin) in private homes.

This era encouraged the rapid rise of criminal activity that was directly associated with bootlegging, as we are all familiar with now knowing something about our old famous friend Al Capone. These illegal operations fueled competitions for the top and gang violence. This and many other reasons where the direct result of the reason why support for Prohibition waned by the end of the 1920’s.  There was much appeal in the idea of creating jobs and revenue by legalizing the liquor industry again. When Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) ran for president that year, he ran on a platform of overturning prohibition, and won.

The 21st amendment was proposed in February of 1933 to Congress, repealing the 18th amendment. It was submitted to the states and in December of 1933, it was ratified. Though a few states continued to prohibit alcohol even after the end of Prohibition, all of the states abandoned the task by 1966.

Did You Know? – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre

by Joann Wolwowicz | February 15, 2012

With Valentine’s Day being just yesterday, it seemed fitting to do this week’s “Did You Know” about something that happened on that day way back in 1929. Known as the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, the shooting took place in a garage in Chicago, Illinois, the one city in the country that had been quickly gaining a reputation for violence. This was largely due to the amount of gang warfare that occurred, primarily led by the man known as the chief crime lord: Al Capone. The violence was between Capone and his rivals. The bloody climax on Valentine’s Day was known as the bloody climax to this gang war, due to the fact that it marked the end of significant opposition to Capone’s rule in Chicago.

Al Capone, also known as Al “Scarface” Capone, took over for his boss Johnny Torrio in 1925, after Torrio retired to Brooklyn after an assassination attempt. During this time, American gangsters earned their money through the illegal manufacturing and selling of alcohol and the operation of illicit drinking establishments known as speakeasies. Gambling and prostitution were also factors in the massive amounts of money these gangsters made during this time of Prohibition. Research states that Capone made a total of $60 million a year, with a net worth of $100 million in 1927 from these activities. This is why Capone was determined to gain control over most of his rivals, eliminating his completion.

By 1924, the authorities stated that there had been at least sixteen gang-related murders, all of which they believed that Capone had been responsible, since he was known to like to gun down his rivals. These murders continued, and in 1929, there was a high of 64 murders in one year. However, the most gruesome murders of all occurred on February 14, 1929, when seven men who were known to be associated with the Irish gangster George Morgan, also known as George “Bugs” Morgan. Morgan was known to be Capone’s longtime enemy and ran his bootlegging operations out of a garage on the North Side of Chicago. In this same garage, the massacre occurred.

Several men dressed as policemen entered the garage and made Morgan’s men line up standing, facing the wall. Around 70 rounds of ammunition were fired at the men. However, when police arrived, one gang member was still alive, but barely. Frank Gusenberg was pressed to reveal what had happened, but he refused to talk before he died. There were only a handful of eyewitnesses, but it was eventually discovered that the med had impersonated policemen. Morgan, who had been on his way to the garage and missed the massacre by minutes, immediately blamed Capone’s gang. Capone, however, claimed to be at home in Florida.

No one was ever brought to trial for the murders. This was one of the first major crimes that the science of ballistics was used to determine who the shooters were and what weapons were used. Machine guns were determined to have been used in the shooting. Though the police never had enough evidence to convict Al Capone, who had the airtight alibi of being in Florida, the public believed that he was responsible. This made Capone a national celebrity and brought him the unwanted attention of the federal government. This is why it is commonly said that though the massacred ended any significant opposition to Capone, it also marked the beginning of his downfall. Dubbed as “Public Enemy No. 1,” federal authorities began investigating Capone.

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